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  Most popular articles (Since July 01, 2014)

 
 
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CASE REPORTS
Nonsurgical management of class III malocclusion: A case report
Pawan Kumar Bhandari, GJ Anbuselvan
January-June 2014, 1(1):35-38
DOI:10.4103/2229-3019.135445  
Not all adult Class III malocclusion patients are candidates for surgical correction. Orthodontic camouflage in patients with slight or moderate skeletal Class III malocclusions can be obtained through different treatment alternatives. This case report describes the nonsurgical treatment of a skeletal Class III malocclusion that relied on simple treatment mechanics to effectively improve the patient's profile and esthetics.
  16,304 1,325 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Management of mid-line discrepencies: A review
S Narmada, KP Senthil Kumar, S Raja
July-December 2015, 2(2):45-48
DOI:10.4103/2229-3019.177901  
Midline deviations are a common and persistent problem that all orthodontists must face. Skeletal tissue, soft tissue, and dent-alveolar asymmetries may be present alone or in combination in a patient with no coincident midlines. A proper understanding of the etiology and the contribution of the components in midline discrepancy is very essential in proper diagnosis and treatment planning. This article discusses the different treatment strategies in the diagnosis and correction of midline asymmetries.
  15,622 1,687 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Common chief complaints of patients seeking treatment in the government dental institution of Puducherry, India
Thangadurai Maheswaran, Venkatapathy Ramesh, Ajith Krishnan, Joe Joseph
July-December 2015, 2(2):55-58
DOI:10.4103/2229-3019.177921  
Objective: To explore the common chief complaints (CCs) of patients seeking treatment in the government dental hospital of Puducherrry, India. Materials and Methods: The age, gender, and the CC or the main reason for the visit were recorded for each consecutive patient of the 1,014 patients attending the dental hospital. The chi-square test was used to find any statistical association between the variables. Results: The mean age of the study group was 28.1 years with age ranging 1-80 years. "Toothache" is found to be most common CC reported by 33% of the patients. "Decayed tooth" is reported as the CC by 19% of the patients. CCs were found to vary across the different age groups and to some extent gender differences were also noted. Conclusion: CC denotes the demand for dental care and thus, helps in proper planning of the public dental health care system.
  8,175 382 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Ortho-perio relation: A review
PK Deepthi, P Arun Kumar, H Esther Nalini, Renuka Devi
July-December 2015, 2(2):40-44
DOI:10.4103/2229-3019.177900  
Orthodontic treatment aims at providing acceptable functional and aesthetic occlusions using appropriate tooth movements. These movements are specifically related to interactions of the teeth with their supportive periodontal tissues. Periodontic and orthodontic interactions usually deal with the establishment of an appropriate diagnosis and the treatment planning needed to enable coordinated periodontic-orthodontic therapy. A harmonious cooperation of the periodontist and the orthodontist offers great possibilities for the treatment of various orthodontic-periodontal problems. The present discussion focused on the effects of a combined periodontal and orthodontic treatment on the periodontal health and dentofacial aesthetics, and the mode that each field can contribute to optimize treatment of combined orthodontic-periodontal clinical problems.
  5,997 2,036 -
Mandibular incisor extraction in orthodontics: A systematic review
Thirunavukkarasu Vignesh, KP Senthil Kumar, Senthil Kumar Tamizharasi
January-June 2014, 1(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/2229-3019.135408  
Objectives: Our objective was to evaluate the use of mandibular incisor extraction in relieving the lower anterior crowding and its advantages and disadvantages. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of the literature by using several electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, Cochrane library, Medline in progress, Web of science) was performed with the help of a senior health sciences librarian. The electronic search was followed up with hand searches. After applying our inclusion and exclusion criteria, the search yielded 30 articles that were then scored, based on their methodological validity. Results: Mandibular single incisor extraction proved to be an effective way of relieving the lower anterior crowding with good long-term stability. However, a proper case selection, lower inter-canine width, tooth size arch length discrepancy are some of the factors that influence the achievement of stable results. Conclusion: Mandibular incisor extraction, as discussed in this article is a good choice when all the conditions with regard to its indications are satisfied by a patient. Incisor extraction is a better choice to opt for, as the mechanics becomes simpler and good results are achievable.
  6,496 1,225 -
Role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPS) in periodontitis and its management
K Charles, Esther Nalini Honibald, N Raghavendra Reddy, Arun Palani, Renuka Devi Ramamurthy, Thirumalai Sankaralingam
July-December 2014, 1(2):65-69
DOI:10.4103/2229-3019.148262  
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteolytic enzymes that mediate the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) macromolecules. The activity of MMPs is seen not only during normal organogenesis and wound healing, but also in pathological condition like inflammatory diseases. MMP synthesis and functions are regulated by transcriptional activation, post-transcriptional processing and by a family of endogenous inhibitors collectively known as tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). The balance of MMPs to TIMPs therefore determines matrix turnover, where either an excess of MMPs or a deficit of TIMPs may result in excess ECM degradation. This review describes the role of MMPs in periodontitis and its management.
  5,585 1,257 3
CASE REPORTS
Fixed functional space maintainer: A weight gainer: A case report
KP Aswanth, Sharath Asokan, Baby J John
January-June 2014, 1(1):25-27
DOI:10.4103/2229-3019.135442  
Restoration of primary maxillary incisors severely damaged by caries or trauma is a clinical challenge for pedodontist. In the past, the only treatment option would have been to extract the affected teeth and replace them with prosthetic substitutes. Various therapeutic modalities from removable partial dentures to fixed space maintainer can be used for replacement of such lost teeth. The purpose of this paper was to describe the rehabilitation of primary anterior and posterior teeth in a 5-year-old child using fixed functional space maintainer. It constituted a design, whereby the maxillary primary second molars were used to support the appliance through bands and a wire that contained an acrylic flange bearing trimmed acrylic teeth, both anteriorly and posteriorly. The appliance was both functional and aesthetical.
  5,188 1,007 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Pharmacotherapy for host modulation in periodontal disease: A review
Ajesh Joseph, H Esther Nalini, P Arun Kumar, Renuka Devi
July-December 2015, 2(2):35-39
DOI:10.4103/2229-3019.177899  
Recent research works in the field of periodontics have elaborated on a wide range of treatment modalities for the treatment of periodontal disease. One such approach for controlling the host-mediated periodontal tissue destruction is host modulation therapy (HMT). Used as an adjunct to standard periodontal therapy HMT is proved as a valid treatment option. The present article reviews different pharmacotherapeutic agents used for host modulation.
  2,792 3,333 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Correlation between the menstrual cycle and the onset of recurrent aphthous stomatitis
Thangadurai Maheswaran, Andamuthu Yamunadevi, Vadivel Ilayaraja, Janardhanam Dineshshankar, Thukanayakanpalayam Ragunathan Yoithapprabhunath, Nalliappan Ganapathy
January-June 2015, 2(1):25-26
DOI:10.4103/2229-3019.166117  
Background: The association between recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) and the menstrual cycle is not clearly reported in the scientific literature. Aim: The aim of this study was to find the association between the onset of RAS and various phases of the menstrual cycle. Materials and Methods: Data regarding the onset of RAS were collected from 140 female participants during various phases of the menstrual cycle. Results: Out of 140 participants, 30 reported with the incidence of RAS during the 3 months of evaluation. Out of those 30 participants, 10 had incidence of ulcers during the third week after menstruation. Conclusions: Hormonal factors may play a role in the clinical manifestation of RAS.
  5,315 569 -
ORIGINAL STUDY ARTICLES
Evaluation of oral hygiene status and periodontal health in Down's syndrome subjects in comparison with normal healthy individuals
CS Krishnan, Burnice Nalina Kumari, G Sivakumar, Srinivas Prasad Iyer, PR Ganesh
July-December 2014, 1(2):47-49
DOI:10.4103/2229-3019.148237  
Aim of the study was to assess the oral hygiene status and periodontal status of Down's syndrome (DS) and normal subjects. The study was undertaken at Opportunity School at Vepery, Chennai, India. Two hundred subjects were selected. Among them100 were DS subjects and100 healthy normal subjects were selected (students from Madha School, Chennai, India) for comparison. All were screened for oral hygiene and periodontal status by OHI-Sand Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN). Statistical analysis was done by Pearson's correlation coefficient. The results showed that the DS subjects had decreased prevalence rate of periodontitis.
  2,426 2,771 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Materials in maxillo-facial prosthesis
J Ramesh Reddy, B Muthu Kumar, SC Ahila, Suresh Rajendiran
January-June 2015, 2(1):1-4
DOI:10.4103/2229-3019.166094  
The increase in research in various maxillo-facial materials is due to increase in the prevalence of oral cancer. Materials used for rehabilitation of congenital or acquired defects of patients should fulfill the requirements such as function, longevity, and esthetics. This article provides the evolution, current trends, and future requirements in maxillofacial materials for ensuring psychological well-being.
  4,088 963 -
CASE REPORTS
Osteoma of mandible: A case report
P Srinivasan, Khaja M Khalid Nawaz, Mohan Shanker
January-June 2014, 1(1):39-42
DOI:10.4103/2229-3019.135448  
Osteomas are benign osteogenic lesions with very slow growth, which may arise from proliferation of either cancellous or compact bone. In the jaw, these are uncommon lesions. A 45-year-old female patient reported to our dental out patient department (OPD) with a complaint of painless swelling in the right lower back jaw region for the past 2 years. A single, well-defined radiopaque lesion intermixed with multiple radiolucent areas was evident in the right body of mandible region in orthopantomogram (OPG) and computed tomography (CT) with hyperdense area with intermixed hypodense areas. In this case report, we discuss about the subsequent diagnosis and the possible treatment modality of this entity.
  3,753 282 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparison of shaping ability of three different rotary instruments in simulated root canals using computer image analysis: An in vitro study
Jonathan Emil Sam, A Arvind Kumar, S Uma Maheswari, Jacob Raja, R Gnana Seelan, T. S. P. Ram Balaji
January-June 2015, 2(1):8-12
DOI:10.4103/2229-3019.166098  
Aim: This in vitro study was done to compare the shaping ability of ProTaper, K3, and Hero Shapers in clear resin blocks with simulated root canals using computer image software analysis. Materials and Methods: 45 clear resin blocks with simulated root canals were divided into three groups of 15 each. Preinstrumentation digitalized images of the blocks were made and stored. Each group was instrumented with ProTaper, K3, and Hero Shapers, respectively. Postinstrumentation images of the blocks were made after injecting a contrast medium to improve the outlines of the root canals. Pre- and post-instrumentation images were magnified, superimposed, and assessed using computer image analysis program (pattern matching analysis). Material removal was measured at nine points in the inner wall and outer wall ending 1 cm from the apical terminus. Statistical Analysis: Student's t-test and one-way analysis of variance were used to compare the overall change in the width in the mesial view by using ProTaper, K3, and Hero Shapers. Results: ProTaper showed more change in width, followed by K3 and Hero Shapers. Conclusion: ProTaper and K3 showed significant removal of material in the outer wall of the coronal and apical 3 rd , followed by inner wall of the middle 3 rd . Hero Shapers showed significant removal of material in the outer wall of coronal 3 rd , with less significant changes in the middle 3 rd and even material removal in the apical 3 rd .
  3,718 312 -
Surgical procedure for guided bone regeneration using resorbable membrane barrier for ridge augmentation in successful implant placement
Raghavendra Nagappa, Ashraf SM Elzer, Salem Faraj Ben Younis, Megharaj Doddagoudar
July-December 2015, 2(2):70-75
DOI:10.4103/2229-3019.177931  
Objectives: Guided bone regeneration (GBR) is a widely used technique to augment alveolar ridge defects to allow implant placement and improve the final aesthetic outcomes of implant-supported restorations. Since the introduction of GBR, which is based on the theory of guided tissue regeneration, scientific evidence has demonstrated its effectiveness in regenerating lost bone. A biologically based technique must be used for clinical success and to avoid the occurrence of complications. This article will discuss a step-by-step surgical procedure for GBR using absorbable membrane barrier for ridge augmentation in implants. Materials and Methods: A full-thickness midcrestal incision is made between the teeth preserving the interdental papilla. The required osteotomy is then prepared, the 4.1 × 10 SLA Straumann implant is placed, and good primary stability is achieved. Following implant placement, GBR procedures are performed. A resorbable collagen membrane is then cut to the same shape as the template and placed over the surgical site. Results: The GBR using absorbable membrane barrier for ridge augmentation produces a dense bone, resulting in minimal or no bone loss when implants are placed into this bone. Conclusions: This GBR using absorbable barrier membrane for ridge augmentation in implants had several advantages over other techniques. One advantage is preserving the interdental papilla and providing sufficient advancement of the flap, which are very important for the success of GBR and for the success of implants placed. The second advantage is avoiding of second surgery for the removal of membrane even though the complications using resorbable membrane barrier may have been multifactorial. Therefore, meticulous surgical and restorative procedures are necessary to reduce the prevalence of complications.
  3,611 362 -
CASE REPORTS
Full-mouth rehabilitation of a patient with severely worn dentition for function and esthetics
Sunil Kumar Mishra, Srinivasa B Rao, Ramesh Chowdhary, PS Patil
January-June 2016, 3(1):29-32
DOI:10.4103/2229-3019.192470  
Management of patients with worn dentition is complex and difficult. The management of tooth wear, especially attrition, is becoming a subject of increasing interest in the prosthodontic literature. The specific objectives of this treatment were to restore the masticatory functions by prosthetic rehabilitation of missing teeth, and then treating the periodontally and endodontically involved teeth. This case report presents a 65-year-old woman who was referred for restoration of her worn and missing teeth. Full-mouth rehabilitation of the patient with severely worn dentition and an uneven occlusal plane was done and also the collapse bite was regained by raising the vertical dimension of occlusion by 2 mm within the limit of free-way space. In this case report, the vertical dimension was regain, missing teeth were replaced which enhance esthetics. With better treatment planning and patient’s psychological counseling, dentists can improve patient’s quality of life.
  3,529 397 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Oral malodor: A review
Karthika Panicker, Renuka Devi, Esther Nalini Honibald, Arun Kumar Prasad
July-December 2015, 2(2):49-54
DOI:10.4103/2229-3019.177916  
Breath odor research captured the scientific community's attention during the last few decades. Evidence-based studies have justified that halitosis causes social restriction and decreased life quality, and that it may be an indicator for periodontal as well as systemic diseases. This has led to the advances in analytical monitors used for the identification and measurement of the malodourous compounds. The present discussion intends to focus on the etiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria, and the various treatment strategies for halitosis.
  3,260 417 1
CASE REPORTS
Prosthetic rehabilitation in a partially edentulous patient with lost vertical dimension: A case report
R Arun Jaikumar, N Madhulika, R Pradeep Kumar, K Vijayalakshmi
July-December 2014, 1(2):70-73
DOI:10.4103/2229-3019.148266  
The stomatognathic system is a complicated structure, and patients usually adapt to their existing vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO). Therefore, prosthetic rehabilitation of decreased VDO should be considered only when dictated by esthetic or functional requirements. Successful rehabilitation of these patients may present us with a huge challenge of a lack of restorative space. Careful and comprehensive treatment planning is required for each individual patient. The important aspect is to find the most comfortable position for the patient. In this case a bite raising splint was used after the decision of increasing VD by anatomical landmark, facial and physiologic measurement. Once the compatibility of the new VD had been confirmed, interim fixed restoration and the permanent reconstruction was initiated. In this case report, a satisfactory clinical result was achieved by restoring the VD with an improvement in esthetics and function.
  3,125 338 -
Odontogenic keratocyst in anterior Mandible: An interesting case report
U Punitha Gnanaselvi, D Kamatchi, Keerthana Sekar, B Surya Narayanan
January-June 2016, 3(1):22-24
DOI:10.4103/2229-3019.192466  
Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a common developmental odontogenic cyst affecting the maxillofacial region that arises from the dental lamina. The OKC is distinctive among jaw cysts given its tendency toward recurrence and aggressive clinical behavior. This article presents a case of OKC in the anterior mandible and a review of diagnostic aids and different treatment modalities.
  2,986 273 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Influence of anatomical variation of canine in parasymphyseal fracture: A retrospective studyInfluence of anatomical variation of canine in parasymphyseal fracture: A retrospective study
S. P. Indra Kumar, Thangavelu Annamalai, S Thiruneelakandan, V Sadesh Kannan, R Murugan, E Gayathri Priyadharshini
July-December 2016, 3(2):33-38
DOI:10.4103/jiadsr.jiadsr_6_17  
Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of anatomical variation of canine in parasymphysis fracture. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital analysing parasymphysis fracture over a period of 5 years from 2009 to 2014 and 103 parasymphysis fracture patients were evaluated. Only patients with parasymphysis fracture were taken into the study. Sex, age, incidence, site of fracture with reference to canine, canine length, and associated fractures are evaluated from the data available. The statistical analysis was constructed and analysis performed using Statistical Package of Social Studies. Result: The unilateral parasymphysis fracture is the most common site in mandibular fracture. The male patients are more in number. The road traffic accident is considered to be the most common etiological factor. The length of the canine root is approximately 17–18 mm with no pathological features, deformities, or hypercementosis, and none of our case were impacted, and the pattern of the fracture occurred either mesial or distal to canine and not exactly in the midline of the tooth; hence, it does not influence in parasymphysis fracture. Conclusion: Increased number of samples and a prospective analysis of the influence of canine during preliminary management of fracture will give a definitive idea on the anatomical variation and influence contributing to the fracture in parasymphysis region.
  1,087 2,118 -
ORIGINAL STUDY ARTICLES
Soft tissue cephalometric changes after correction of skeletal class II with Twin block functional appliance therapy: A pilot study
K Janardhanan, S Tamizharasi, KP Senthil Kumar
July-December 2014, 1(2):50-52
DOI:10.4103/2229-3019.148245  
Background: The correction of skeletal class II malocclusions when the patient is in growing stages by functional appliances is most favorable option, since a normal path of mandibular growth can be achieved at this stage. This article aims at determining the effects of Twin block functional appliance on the facial soft tissues. Materials and Methods: Changes in soft tissue after the correction of skeletal class II with Twin block were measured using lateral cephalometric radiographs. Results: Significant soft tissue changes have been found after treatment with Twin block functional appliance. Conclusion: Twin block functional appliance in skeletal class II patients with retrognathic mandible is also capable of producing significant and favorable soft tissue changes in addition to its skeletal and dental effects.
  2,012 1,047 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of awareness among dentists about magnetic resonance imaging and their interactions with restorative dental materials: A survey among dentists in three districts of Tamilnadu
Chalakuzhiyl-Abraham Mathew, Sudhakara V Maller, Udita S Maller, M Maheshwaran, S Valarmathi, B Karrunakaran
January-June 2016, 3(1):6-9
DOI:10.4103/2229-3019.192471  
Introduction: Patients with dental restorations may require magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head and neck, to assess the progress of diseases or to determine the cause of any subsequent symptoms, or for a purpose unrelated to the dental restorations. This may cause distortion of the images or the dislodgement of the prosthesis which thereby can cause injury to the adjacent tissues. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the awareness among dentists in three districts of Tamilnadu, regarding the interaction between restorative dental materials and MRI. Material and Methods: A questionnaire was designed to obtain information about materials used by dentists in treating their patients and their effect on MRI and vice versa, and to determine the perceptions of respondent dental practitioners. The study population included all dentists in three districts of Tamilnadu, India (n = 354). Data were collected using a semistructured questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge and practice of dentists, materials they use for restoration, etc. The data was analyzed using SPSS. Results: The questionnaire was provided to 354 dentists and 101 (28%) responded. Out of them 49.5% dentists did not know the type of alloy their lab technician was using for fabrication of metal crowns and fixed partial dentures; 27% of dentists never used all ceramic crowns; 63.4% of dentists perceived that dental materials can produce artifact in MR, and among them 36.6% did not have any idea of how to prevent it. Conclusion: Continuing dental education programs about these interactions are required to improve the knowledge of dentists. The syllabus of dental course should include magnetic property of materials and its interactions with diagnostic procedures like MRI and CT.
  2,865 192 -
CASE REPORTS
Residual radicular cyst in primary molar extraction socket: An unusual clinical entity
Savitha Satyaprasad, SH Krisnamoorthy, Ambili Ayilliath, Somesh Kishore
January-June 2016, 3(1):25-28
DOI:10.4103/2229-3019.192469  
Radicular cyst is a most common type of odontogenic cyst that develops mostly as sequel of untreated dental caries. It is classified as inflammatory type originated mostly from cell rests of Malassez. Radicular cyst arising from deciduous teeth is rare, accounting for just 0.3% to 5% of the total number. Residual kind of radicular cyst in deciduous teeth are still very sparse in literature. Most of the residual cysts are asymptomatic and are found only on routine radiographic examination. We are presenting an interesting and rare case of symptomatic residual radicular cyst of left primary first molar extraction socket with secondary infection in a 5-year-old child. Our aim is to emphasize on investigations, recognition, and treatment of such inflammatory residual radicular lesions associated with deciduous teeth, which has been an unreported clinical entity.
  2,803 217 -
Use a thorn to draw thorn: Reframing and symptom prescription for habit cessation
TD Yogesh Kumar, Sharath Asokan, Baby John John
January-June 2014, 1(1):22-24
DOI:10.4103/2229-3019.135437  
Successful pediatric practice involves a combination of good hand skills and proper behavior guidance of children. Reframing can be used effectively to alter children's thought processes. Reframing can be explained using principles of transactional analysis by Eric Berne, Freud's psychoanalytical theory, and Pavlov's associative learning. The art of reframing lies in learning the skill of knowing the ego state of the child, modifying it (reframing) by changing the thought process and associations, and to make him/her communicate with proper ego states. The role of reframing in the treatment of habits such as thumb sucking and lip biting has been observed. Without psychological management for habits, if other methods of treatment are used, the child pairs the treatment with punishment and may become adamant. Hence, dentists can use reframing in the case of habits, such as symptom prescription or reverse psychology, a component of reframing as the first step wherein the patient is asked to increase the frequency of the habit. Children could no longer enjoy the habit and they became more receptive for communication and by showing photographs of children engaged in the habit that lead to disfigurement, we can further alter the children's thinking. Thus, the change in our approach can bring about a change in mind and attitude of our patients, in turn changing their health behavior and quality of life. This poster attempts to explain the concept of reframing and its application in a clinical situation.
  2,654 326 -
Functional and esthetic rehabilitation of anterior primary teeth using two different approaches
Ganapathy Sivadas, Vaishnavi Vedam, Chacko Varghese, P Sudha
July-December 2015, 2(2):79-82
DOI:10.4103/2229-3019.177935  
Esthetic requirement of severely mutilated primary anterior teeth in the case of early childhood caries (ECC) has been a challenge to pediatric dentists. Numerous treatment approaches have been proposed to address the esthetics and retention of restorations in primary teeth. The choice of restoration depends on various factors such as amount of tooth structure remaining, ability to obtain adequate moisture control, child's cooperating ability, esthetic demands, and cost factor. This case report documents comparison of two esthetic techniques for the management of primary anterior teeth.
  2,584 360 -
Crown lengthening using diode laser: A case series
S Gokulanathan, Deepu Mathews, Rajkumar Daniel, R Ahathya
July-December 2014, 1(2):77-79
DOI:10.4103/2229-3019.148272  
Crown lengthening is a surgical procedure used to increase the extent of supragingival tooth structure for restorative or esthetic purposes. Crown lengthening involves the surgical removal of hard and soft periodontal tissues to gain supracrestal tooth length, allowing longer clinical crowns and reestablishment of the biologic width. Crown lengthening can be done by scalpel, electrosurgery and laser. However, the use of lasers provides many advantages compared to other methods. The advantages of laser over scalpel surgical procedures include greater precision, a relatively bloodless surgical and postsurgical course, sterilization of the surgical area, minimal swelling and scarring, coagulation, vaporization, cutting, minimal or no suturing, and less or no postsurgical pain. The present case series describes three cases of crown lengthening using diode laser.
  2,610 320 1